# ISASPEC - XML Based ISA Specification¶

isaspec provides a mechanism to describe an instruction set in xml, and generate a disassembler and assembler (eventually). The intention is to describe the instruction set more formally than hand-coded assembler and disassembler, and better decouple the shader compiler from the underlying instruction encoding to simplify dealing with instruction encoding differences between generations of GPU.

Benefits of a formal ISA description, compared to hand-coded assemblers and disassemblers, include easier detection of new bit combinations that were not seen before in previous generations due to more rigorous description of bits that are expect to be ‘0’ or ‘1’ or ‘x’ (dontcare) and verification that different encodings don’t have conflicting bits (ie. that the specification cannot result in more than one valid interpretation of any bit pattern).

The isaspec tool and xml schema are intended to be generic (not specific to ir3), although there are currently a couple limitations due to short- cuts taken to get things up and running (which are mostly not inherent to the xml schema, and should not be too difficult to remove from the py and decode/disasm utility):

• Maximum “bitset” size is 64b

• Fixed instruction size

Often times, especially when new functionality is added in later gens while retaining (or at least mostly retaining) backwards compatibility with encodings used in earlier generations, the actual encoding can be rather messy to describe. To support this, isaspec provides many flexible mechanism, such as conditional overrides and derived fields. This not only allows for describing an irregular instruction encoding, but also allows matching an existing disasm syntax (which might not have been design around the idea of disassembly based on a formal ISA description).

## Bitsets¶

The fundamental concept of matching a bit-pattern to an instruction decoding/encoding is the concept of a hierarchial tree of bitsets. This is intended to match how the hw decodes instructions, where certain bits describe the instruction (and sub-encoding, and so on), and other bits describe various operands to the instruction.

Bitsets can also be used recursively as the type of a field described in another bitset.

The leaves of the tree of instruction bitsets represent every possible instruction. Deciding which instruction a bitpattern is amounts to:

m = (val & bitsets[n]->mask) & ~bitsets[n]->dontcare;

if (m == bitsets[n]->match) {
/* we've found the instruction description */
}


For example, the starting point to decode an ir3 instruction is a 64b bitset:

<bitset name="#instruction" size="64">
<doc>
Encoding of an ir3 instruction.  All instructions are 64b.
</doc>
</bitset>


In the first level of instruction encoding hierarchy, the high three bits group things into instruction “categories”:

<bitset name="#instruction-cat2" extends="#instruction">
<field name="DST" low="32" high="39" type="#reg-gpr"/>
<field name="REPEAT" low="40" high="41" type="#rptN"/>
<field name="SAT" pos="42" type="bool" display="(sat)"/>
<field name="SS" pos="44" type="bool" display="(ss)"/>
<field name="UL" pos="45" type="bool" display="(ul)"/>
<field name="DST_CONV" pos="46" type="bool">
<doc>
Destination register is opposite precision as source, ie.
if {FULL} is true then destination is half precision, and
visa versa.
</doc>
</field>
<derived name="DST_HALF" expr="#dest-half" type="bool" display="h"/>
<field name="EI" pos="47" type="bool" display="(ei)"/>
<field name="FULL" pos="52" type="bool">
<doc>Full precision source registers</doc>
</field>
<field name="JP" pos="59" type="bool" display="(jp)"/>
<field name="SY" pos="60" type="bool" display="(sy)"/>
<pattern low="61" high="63">010</pattern>  <!-- cat2 -->
<!--
NOTE, both SRC1_R and SRC2_R are defined at this level because
SRC2_R is still a valid bit for (nopN) (REPEAT==0) for cat2
instructions with only a single src
-->
<field name="SRC1_R" pos="43" type="bool" display="(r)"/>
<field name="SRC2_R" pos="51" type="bool" display="(r)"/>
<derived name="ZERO" expr="#zero" type="bool" display=""/>
</bitset>


The <pattern> elements are the part(s) that determine which leaf-node bitset matches against a given bit pattern. The leaf node’s match/mask/ dontcare bitmasks are a combination of those defined at the leaf node and recursively each parent bitclass.

For example, cat2 instructions (ALU instructions with up to two src registers) can have either one or two source registers:

<bitset name="#instruction-cat2-1src" extends="#instruction-cat2">
<override expr="#cat2-cat3-nop-encoding">
<display>
{SY}{SS}{JP}{SAT}(nop{NOP}) {UL}{NAME} {EI}{DST_HALF}{DST}, {SRC1}
</display>
<derived name="NOP" expr="#cat2-cat3-nop-value" type="uint"/>
<field name="SRC1" low="0" high="15" type="#multisrc">
<param name="ZERO" as="SRC_R"/>
<param name="FULL"/>
</field>
</override>
<display>
{SY}{SS}{JP}{SAT}{REPEAT}{UL}{NAME} {EI}{DST_HALF}{DST}, {SRC1}
</display>
<pattern low="16" high="31">xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx</pattern>
<pattern low="48" high="50">xxx</pattern>  <!-- COND -->
<field name="SRC1" low="0" high="15" type="#multisrc">
<param name="SRC1_R" as="SRC_R"/>
<param name="FULL"/>
</field>
</bitset>

<bitset name="absneg.f" extends="#instruction-cat2-1src">
<pattern low="53" high="58">000110</pattern>
</bitset>


In this example, absneg.f is a concrete cat2 instruction (leaf node of the bitset inheritance tree) which has a single src register. At the #instruction-cat2-1src level, bits that are used for the 2nd src arg and condition code (for cat2 instructions which use a condition code) are defined as ‘x’ (dontcare), which matches our understanding of the hardware (but also lets the disassembler flag cases where ‘1’ bits show up in places we don’t expect, which may signal a new instruction (sub)encoding).

You’ll notice that SRC1 refers back to a different bitset hierarchy that describes various different src register encoding (used for cat2 and cat4 instructions), ie. GPR vs CONST vs relative GPR/CONST. For fields which have bitset types, parameters can be “passed” in via <param> elements, which can be referred to by the display template string, and/or expressions. For example, this helps to deal with cases where other fields outside of that bitset control the encoding/decoding, such as in the #multisrc example:

<bitset name="#multisrc" size="16">
<doc>
Encoding for instruction source which can be GPR/CONST/IMMED
or relative GPR/CONST.
</doc>
</bitset>

...

<bitset name="#multisrc-gpr" extends="#multisrc">
<display>
{ABSNEG}{SRC_R}{HALF}{SRC}
</display>
<derived name="HALF" expr="#multisrc-half" type="bool" display="h"/>
<field name="SRC" low="0" high="7" type="#reg-gpr"/>
<pattern low="8" high="13">000000</pattern>
<field name="ABSNEG" low="14" high="15" type="#absneg"/>
</bitset>


At some level in the bitset inheritance hiearchy, there is expected to be a <display> element specifying a template string used during bitset decoding. The display template consists of references to fields (which may be derived fields) specified as {FIELDNAME} and other characters which are just echoed through to the resulting decoded bitset.

The <override> element will be described in the next section, but it provides for both different decoded instruction syntax/mnemonics (when simply providing a different display template string) as well as instruction encoding where different ranges of bits have a different meaning based on some other bitfield (or combination of bitfields). In this example it is used to cover the cases where SRCn_R has a different meaning and a different disassembly syntax depending on whether REPEAT equals zero.

## Overrides¶

In many cases, a bitset is not convenient for describing the expected disasm syntax, and/or interpretation of some range of bits differs based on some other field or combination of fields. These could be modeled as different derived bitsets, at the expense of a combinatorical explosion of the size of the bitset inheritance tree. For example, every cat2 (and cat3) instruction has both a (nopN) interpretation in addtion to the (rptN) interpretation.

An <override> in a bitset allows to redefine the display string, and/or field definitions from the default case. If the override’s expr(ession) evaluates to non-zero, <display>, <field>, and <derived> elements take precedence over what is defined in the toplevel of the bitset (ie. the default case).

## Expressions¶

Both <override> and <derived> fields make use of <expr> elements, either defined inline, or defined and named at the top level and referred to by name in multiple other places. An expression is a simple ‘C’ expression which can reference fields (including other derived fields) with the same {FIELDNAME} syntax as display template strings. For example:

<expr name="#cat2-cat3-nop-encoding">
(({SRC1_R} != 0) || ({SRC2_R} != 0)) &amp;&amp; ({REPEAT} == 0)
</expr>


In the case of <override> elements, the override applies if the expression evaluates to non-zero. In the case of <derived> fields, the expression evaluates to the value of the derived field.

## Encoding¶

To facilitate instruction encoding, <encode> elements can be provided to teach the generated instruction packing code how to map from data structures representing the IR to fields. For example:

<bitset name="#instruction" size="64">
<doc>
Encoding of an ir3 instruction.  All instructions are 64b.
</doc>
<gen min="300"/>
<encode type="struct ir3_instruction *" case-prefix="OPC_">
<!--
Define mapping from encode src to individual fields,
which are common across all instruction categories
at the root instruction level

Not all of these apply to all instructions, but we
can define mappings here for anything that is used
in more than one instruction category.  For things
that are specific to a single instruction category,
mappings should be defined at that level instead.
-->
<map name="DST">src->regs[0]</map>
<map name="SRC1">src->regs[1]</map>
<map name="SRC2">src->regs[2]</map>
<map name="SRC3">src->regs[3]</map>
<map name="REPEAT">src->repeat</map>
<map name="SS">!!(src->flags &amp; IR3_INSTR_SS)</map>
<map name="JP">!!(src->flags &amp; IR3_INSTR_JP)</map>
<map name="SY">!!(src->flags &amp; IR3_INSTR_SY)</map>
<map name="UL">!!(src->flags &amp; IR3_INSTR_UL)</map>
<map name="EQ">0</map>  <!-- We don't use this (yet) -->
<map name="SAT">!!(src->flags &amp; IR3_INSTR_SAT)</map>
</encode>
</bitset>


The type attribute specifies that the input to encoding an instruction is a struct ir3_instruction *. In the case of bitset hierarchies with multiple possible leaf nodes, a case-prefix attribute should be supplied along with a function that maps the bitset encode source to an enum value with the specified prefix prepended to uppercase’d leaf node name. Ie. in this case, “add.f” becomes OPC_ADD_F.

Individual <map>` elements teach the encoder how to map from the encode source to fields in the encoded instruction.